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Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

respond to peers thoughtfully, add value to the discussion, and apply ideas, insights, or concepts from scholarly sources, such as: journal articles, assigned readings, textbook material, lectures, course materials, or authoritative websites. For specific details and criteria, refer to the discussion rubric in the Menu (⋮) or in the Course Overview Weekly Discussion Guidelines. 

1st peer post:

Kiersten Echols

 There are many things that can influence your predisposition to specific disease processes. For example, culture can affect your predisposition to disease based on genetic factors and diet. Certain cultures have diets that contain higher sodium or higher use of trans fat. For example, if we take the Collins-Kim’s Korean culture diet, their traditional dishes tend to contain more sodium which can lead to a pre-disposition and a higher likelihood of high blood pressure later in life. Financials can influence your predisposition to disease because they may influence the environment you live in and the food you eat. If you are on a lower income, you are more likely to live in an area that may be higher in air pollutants and unhygienic living spaces directly causing diseases such as COPD or Asthma. You also may only be able to afford lower quality food containing higher sodium, saturated fats, and processed foods containing chemicals leading to obesity or high cholesterol. Your genetics play just as big of a role as all of the factors listed above in your risk of disease development. Things such as Sickle Cell disease are passed down through the generations, most common in African-American ancestry, and are unavoidable if it is part of your genetic makeup when you are born. 

 The two family members I would like to focus on are Noah Collins and Grandpa Kim (Akio). The lifespan considerations I would look at for Noah would be her higher risk for things like heart disease and diabetes. These things are more common in African Americans and should be monitored as they age. Given that we do not know anything about her birth parent’s health history, she should be screened for any genetic diseases that are prominent in this population such as Sickle Cell. For Grandpa Kim, considering he already has a diagnosis of hypertension, I would make sure he sees his PCP and Cardiologist regularly to watch his heart health closely. This diagnosis may be related to the high sodium diet from Korean dishes leading to increased inflammation in the body. He needs to adhere to the lifestyle changes that must be made when given this diagnosis such as watching sodium intake, monitoring his blood pressure daily, and taking his medications regularly throughout his life. 

References

Basdeki, E. D., Kollias, A., Mitrou, P., Tsirimiagkou, C., Georgakis, M. K., Chatzigeorgiou, A., Argyris, A., Karatzi, K., Manios, Y., Sfikakis, P. P., & Protogerou, A. D. (2021, July 30).  Does sodium intake induce systemic inflammatory response? A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized studies in humans. Nutrients.  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8399701/

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2019, January 3).  Introduction to environmental public health tracking. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.  https://www.cdc.gov/nceh/tracking/tracking-intro.html#:~:text=Environmental%20hazards%E2%80%94like%20water%20and,acute%20illnesses%20like%20heat%20exhaustion .

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2018, January 19).  Behavior, environment, and genetic factors all have a role in causing people to be overweight and obese. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.  https://www.cdc.gov/genomics/resources/diseases/obesity/index.htm

Kim, S. H., Kim, M. S., Lee, M. S., Park, Y. S., Lee, H. J., Kang, S., Lee, H. S., Lee, K.-E., Yang, H. J., Kim, M. J., Lee, Y.-E., & Kwon, D. Y. (2016, March 15).  Korean diet: Characteristics and historical background. Journal of Ethnic Foods.  https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2352618116300099#:~:text=The%20principal%20aspects%20of%20the,and%20sesame%20or%20perilla%20oil .

U.S. National Library of Medicine. (n.d.).  Why are some genetic conditions more common in particular ethnic groups?: Medlineplus Genetics. MedlinePlus.  https://medlineplus.gov/genetics/understanding/inheritance/ethnicgroup/#:~:text=People%20in%20an%20ethnic%20group,frequently%20seen%20in%20the%20group .

Weida, E. B., Phojanakong, P., Patel, F., & Chilton, M. (2020, May 18).  Financial Health as a measurable social determinant of health. PloS one.  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7233592/

2nd peer post:

Jasmin Seay

Culture affects an individual’s beliefs regarding healthcare, including whom they seek as providers, how they respond to recommendations, and their willingness to adhere to lifestyle changes and treatment modalities (Hernandez & Blazer, 2006; Nielsen-Bohlman et al., 2004). The Collins-Kim family consists of individuals descending from Greek/Scottish/Irish and East Asian cultures. East Asian culture primarily seeks herbal and holistic treatments as opposed to Western medicine. Finances determine the quality of accessible healthcare resources (Hernandez & Blazer, 2006; Purdue University, 2020). Financial stress/strain directly impacts health because it can influence the adoption of unhealthy coping mechanisms (Purdue University, 2020). A potential example is the history of smoking and obesity within the Collins family. The environment presents similar, if not more detrimental damage than genetics because environmental conditions can mutate genes and trigger disease(National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, 2018). Environmental factors include air pollutants, chemical and noise exposures, and climate change (Regis College, 2020). Regarding genetic influence, family history directly influences the genetic prevalence of a disease occurrence in subsequent generations (Hernandez & Blazer, 2016). There were various incidences of this in the case study, for example, Elliot Collins has asthma which likely was influenced by his mother who has a history of asthma. Additionally, heart disease was prominent in both of Leslie Collins parent’s health history. I chose to follow Leslie Collins and Kali Collins-Kim throughout the case study. With analysis of Leslie Collins personal history and family history, he is a great risk of:

· Obesity (he is currently overweight for his height and family history – both parents) (Earhart, 2010)

· Heart Disease (hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and ex-smoker) 

· COPD (ex-smoker and family history – paternal) (Hersh et al., 2011)

Upon review of Kali Collins-Kim, she is at risk of:

· Antibiotic Resistance (PCN allergy = increased use of broad-spectrum antibiotics) (Blumenthal et al., 2019)

· Dementia and Alzheimer’s (family history – maternal) (Alzheimer’s Association, 2023)